Migrating My Blog from Linode to CloudFront
I have just completed the process of migrating my blog to CloudFront. There are a few reasons for this. Initially I had planned to migrate everything on my Linode to OVH, which has DDoS mitigation and I think even uptime SLAs. The reasoning behind that was the Linode kept getting DDoS’ed and I was sick of it.
Additionally, in January I went to SCALE14x and Eric Hammond (who was introduced to me by Andrew Grangaard) pointed out that by using the current generation of AWS tooling (Lambda, DynamoDB, etc) you can reduce total cost to less than the minimum pricing on a Linode. The cost of my Linode isn’t super expensive (less than the price of Netflix) but every little bit helps. On top of that we use the AWS stuff at work so another chance to be familiar with AWS is a good thing.
Finally, after the most recent security fiasco I just feel safer using infrastructure that is more well tested in general. Plus I think I can get away with moving most of my stuff off of VMs, which means I’m less likely to screw something up.
As a side note, I have been self hosting my blog since 2007. I am loathe to do
external hosting, as external hosts all seem to end up dying at some point
anyway. I did briefly consider hosting on github, but you either have to change
your domain name (
frioux.github.io) or have no TLS (more on that later) so I
decided to go the manual hosting route.
For small stuff like this, it can be worthwhile to make a distinct AWS account for each project. I made a special blog account to help me with accounting if the total cost of this ends up being more than I expect. Because I have my own domain I have as many email addresses as I want, so I just made a new one specifically for my blog, and then used it to make a new AWS account.
After creating the blog account I enabled Cost
Explorer. I have no
idea why this has to be turned on, because it’s super helpful to be able to use.
Next I Activated
MFA (you know,
for security!) Maybe I should have done that first. I could do something with
IAM I’m sure but it would be overkill for something as single task as this
that only I will ever use.
I followed instructions I found here to set up the S3 and CloudFront parts. The only issue I ran into was that I forgot to set the CNAME both in DNS and in the CloudFront config. To actually sync my blog I use the following command:
aws s3 sync --delete . s3://blog.afoolishmanifesto.com
--delete flag is so that files that aren’t in the remote side get removed.
At this point you should be able to test that everything is mostly working by visiting the endpoint that the bucket provides. The CloudFront part usually takes a while because it has to sync all over the world and wait for DNS too.
Because I care about my readers I only serve my blog over HTTPS. It’s not that I think you are reading my blog in secret; I don’t want malware to be injected by messed up access points. Because of that I had to get a certificate. If I were serving from US East I could have gotten free, auto-renewing certificates from Amazon. Sadly I didn’t think to do this, even though it would have been trivial since I don’t really care where the site is served from. StartSSL also gives free certificates, so that’s what I used. To upload your certificate you need to use a command like this:
aws iam upload-server-certificate \ --server-certificate-name blog_cert \ --certificate-body file://blog.afoolishmanifesto.com/ApacheServer/2_blog.afoolishmanifesto.com.crt \ --private-key file://blog.afoolishmanifesto.com.priv \ --certificate-chain file://pwd/blog.afoolishmanifesto.com/ApacheServer/1_root_bundle.crt \ --path /cloudfront/blog/
Getting and creating the certificate is not something I’m super interested in writing about, as it’s pretty well documented already.
Clearly the fact that I pulled the trigger on this project means that I think it was worth it, so here are some of the benefits to using CloudFront to host my blog.
After reading the nightmare glacier post last month I commited to reading and understanding the pricing models of the various AWS services before using them. With that in mind I read about the pricing of the stuff I’ll be using for my blog before embarking on this project.
The S3 Pricing is pretty understandable.
I’ll pay 3¢/mo for the storage, as my blog is about 35 mB of HTML and images
total. Uploading the entire blog afresh (which I sorta assume is what
does, but I’m not sure) is about 16k files, which (rounding up) is 2¢. So if
sync works inefficiently a post is likely to cost me about 5¢, including
fixing typos or whatever. Assuming a lot of posts, let’s say sixteen a
month, that adds up to 80¢ per month. There is no charge to transfer from S3 to
CloudFront, so that adds up to a maximum of 83¢ per month for S3.
The CloudFront Pricing is even more simple. Assuming 100% of the traffic from my Linode is my blog (it is without a doubt mostly IRC, but for accounting purposes let’s assume the worst) and it is all from India (again, nope) the charge from CloudFront will be 51¢. Assuming every single request on my server is to my blog (another verifiable falsehood) that would add whopping $1.10 to the monthly bill. That adds up to $1.61 per month for CloudFront.
So, worst case scenario, my monthly bill is $2.44 a month. I suspect it will likely be much less than that. I’ll try to remember at the end of March to update this post with what the real price ends up being.
Unlike my Linode, which always resided in the wonderful city of Dallas, TX, CloudFront specifically exists to be global. So if you read my blog from the UK (I’m sure there are some!) or Japan (eh… maybe not) it should be a lot more snappy now.
Sometimes my Linode gets rebooted for Hypervisor updates; or worse I mess up my Apache config or something. The above setup is well isolated from all my other stuff so it should be very reliable.
But it’s not all unicorns, rainbows, penny-whistles, and blow. There are some problems!
The above calculations are based on past history. If I get DDoS’d directly I will suddenly get a bill for a thousand bucks, instead of my server just falling over. That’s something that gives me serious pause. My boss told me that you can use Lambda as rate limiting tool. I expect to look into that before too long, especially because I have other plans for Lambda anyway.
Slow to Update
Unsurprisingly, because CloudFront is a CDN, there is a TTL on the cached data, so sometimes it can take a few minutes for a modification to the blog to go live. Not a huge deal, but good to know anyway.
Overall this has been a relatively painless process and I think it is worth it. I hope this helps anyone considering migration to AWS.Posted Sat, Feb 20, 2016